Analysing Operation FlightNight: A Cyber Espionage Campaign Targeting Indian Government and Energy Sectors

Posted on: 02 Apr 2024 | Author: Foresiet


In recent months, the cybersecurity landscape has witnessed the emergence of sophisticated threats targeting critical infrastructure and governmental entities. One such threat, dubbed "Operation FlightNight," has garnered attention due to its strategic targeting of Indian government entities and the energy sector. Foresiet analysts have been diligently investigating this campaign to understand its modus operandi and implications for cybersecurity.


Beginning on March 7th, 2024, Foresiet analysts detected an uncategorized threat actor named FlightNight employing a modified version of the open-source information stealer HackBrowserData to infiltrate Indian government entities and energy companies. The attacker's methodology involved the delivery of malware via phishing emails, disguised as invitation letters from the Indian Air Force. Once executed, the malware facilitated the exfiltration of sensitive data to attacker-controlled Slack channels, which EclecticIQ analysts termed "FlightNight."

Targets and Data Exfiltration

The targets of Operation FlightNight included various government agencies responsible for electronic communications, IT governance, and national defense, alongside private Indian energy companies. The exfiltrated data encompassed a wide array of sensitive information, including confidential internal documents, private email messages, financial records, and details pertaining to oil and gas drilling activities.

Assessment and Implications

With a total of 8.81 GB of exfiltrated data, analysts have raised concerns regarding the potential for further intrusions into the Indian government's infrastructure. Behavioral similarities between Operation FlightNight and a previously reported attack on January 17, 2024, strongly indicate a connection, leading EclecticIQ analysts to assess with high confidence that the motive behind these actions is cyber espionage.

Collaborative Efforts and Assistance

In response to these threats, Foresiet has collaborated with Indian authorities to share findings and assist in identifying victims, facilitating the incident response process. By working together with relevant stakeholders, we aim to mitigate the impact of Operation FlightNight and enhance cybersecurity measures to safeguard critical infrastructure and sensitive data.

Invitation Letter

The threat actor employed a deceptive tactic by disguising malware within a decoy PDF document, masquerading as an invitation letter purportedly from the Indian Air Force. This malicious document was concealed within an ISO file, alongside an executable form of the malware. Furthermore, a shortcut file (LNK) was appended to the package, designed to dupe recipients into unwittingly triggering the malware.

This pdf injected with scholar.exe

The malware creates a TXT file named "Bkdqqxb.txt" in the `%TEMP%` directory and utilizes it as a mutex to inhibit multiple instances from executing concurrently on the same host. This filename, along with web browser names, is stored in an encoded format and dynamically decoded during the malware's execution.

The cached web browser data was stored within the file path "C:\Users\Public\". This file was transmitted to attacker-controlled Slack channels using the `files.upload` API method.

The ZIP file contains browser data in CSV format, which is the default format utilized by the original HackBrowserData tool.

Detection & Mitigation Opportunities

Email Filtering : Implement robust email filtering solutions to detect and block phishing emails, such as those impersonating legitimate organizations like the Indian Air Force.

Behavioral Analysis : Employ behavioral analysis techniques to identify suspicious activities indicative of malware execution, such as unusual file access patterns or unauthorized data exfiltration attempts.

Endpoint Protection : Utilize advanced endpoint protection solutions equipped with real-time threat detection capabilities to detect and prevent the execution of malicious payloads, including modified versions of known malware like HackBrowserData.

Network Traffic Monitoring : Implement network traffic monitoring tools to detect anomalous communication patterns, such as unexpected data transfers to unauthorized or unusual destinations, such as Slack channels.

List of the targeted web browser

  • Google Chrome
  • Google Chrome Beta
  • Chromium
  • Microsoft Edge
  • 360 Speed
  • QQ
  • Brave
  • Opera
  • OperaGX
  • Vivaldi


Operation FlightNight underscores the evolving nature of cyber threats and the importance of proactive cybersecurity measures. As threat actors continue to exploit vulnerabilities for nefarious purposes, collaboration, information sharing, and robust cybersecurity frameworks are essential in defending against such attacks. Foresiet remains committed to staying at the forefront of cybersecurity research and contributing to global efforts to combat cyber threats effectively.

Indicator of compromise

Indicator Type Indicators
SHA256 a811a2dea86dbf6ee9a288624de029be24158fa88f5a6c10acf5bf01ae159e36
SHA256 4fa0e396cda9578143ad90ff03702a3b9c796c657f3bdaaf851ea79cb46b86d7
SHA256 4a287fa02f75b953e941003cf7c2603e606de3e3a51a3923731ba38eef5532ae
SHA256 dab645ecb8b2e7722b140ffe1fd59373a899f01bc5d69570d60b8b26781c64fb
SHA256 4455ca4e12b5ff486c466897522536ad753cd459d0eb3bfb1747ffc79a2ce5dd
SHA256 69c3a92757f79a0020cf1711cda4a724633d535f75bbef2bd74e07a902831d59
SHA256 0ac787366bb435c11bf55620b4ba671b710c6f8924712575a0e443abd9922e9f

MITRE ATT&CKĀ® Techniques

Tactic Technique
T1567 Exfiltration Over Web Service
T1539 Steal Web Session Cookie
T1217 Browser Information Discovery
T1071.001 Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols
T1083 File and Directory Discovery
T1566.002 Phishing: Spearphishing Link
T1036.008 Masquerading: Masquerade File Type
T1140 Deobfuscate/Decode Files or Information
T1204.002 User Execution: Malicious File

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